Mubahalah

Mutual Curse (Mubahalah)

The story of mutual curse indicates one of the other merits of Imam `Ali, his children and his dignified wife, for the Messenger of Allah sought their help so that his prayer be answered by their saying Amen.

Following the conquest of Mecca when Islam and its rule spread in Hijaz, delegations from every direction came to the Holy Prophet (s.a) either to embrace Islam or to seek life security. One of these delegations was the Christians of Najran consisting of thirty people headed by Abu-Harithah who was their bishop (chief priest). Some of the members of this delegation were: Al-`Aqib, al-Sayyid, and `Abd al-Masih who came to Medina in fine silk robes while wearing a cross on their necks. The Holy Prophet too was performing his afternoon prayer. At this time, a group of the Jews of Medina met the Christians, started discussing their differences with one group rejecting the other. At any rate, Najran delegation came to the presence of the Holy Prophet (s.a), saying: O Muhammad! What is your opinion about Jesus, the son of Mary? The Messenger of Allah said: Jesus is the servant of Allah who appointed him as a prophet.

The chief priest said: Do you know any father for him? The Holy Prophet said: No, because his creation was not through marriage so that he would have a father. The bishop said: Was he not created? The Holy Prophet said: Yes, he was created! They said: How can a person be created with no father? At this time, God Almighty revealed the following verse: “surely the likeness of Jesus is with Allah as the likeness of Adam, …, then let us be earnest in prayer, and pray for the curse of Allah on the liars” (3:59-61). Reciting these verses, the Messenger of Allah added: If you do not accept what I say, prepare yourself for mutual cursing and know that punishment will come down on those who are unjust! The chief priest and his companions started exchanging views and decided to be given a deadline till the next morning so that they would announce the result of their decision. The Holy Prophet (s.a) agreed. Returning home, the chief priest said to his aides: If tomorrow Muhammad and his household come for mutual cursing, we will never give in to it but if he comes with his companions, we will take part in it and know that he is not right.

Turning to Christians, an outstanding person said: O Christian community, you certainly know that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah, for he spoke truthfully about Jesus Christ. By God, if a group carry out mutual cursing with a prophet, life will become bitter to the elderly people and they will perish soon and no children will be found among them. If you go for mutual cursing, you will all perish! If you are fond of your religion and adhere to it, the only solution will be to compromise with this man, to put an end to hostility and to return to your land.

The following day when Christians came to see the Holy Prophet (s.a), they found the Messenger of Allah taking the hand of `Ali in his hand, Hasan and Husayn being in front of him and Fatimah behind him. The chief priest asked people about them. They said: This man whose hand is in the hand of the Messenger of Allah is his cousin, son-in-law and the most beloved man to him, that is `Ali ibn Abi-Talib, these two children are his grandchildren and the most beloved to him, and that woman too is his daughter, the dearest and most honorable and the closest to his heart, whom he calls his own spirit! Looking at `Aqib, Sayyid and `Abd al-Masih who enjoyed high positions with him, the chief priest said: Think well about your affair, for those who accompany him are his endeared ones like whom there is no one on the earth. He has brought them for mutual cursing, a sign that he is sure about what he says! By God, if he were not right, he would not expose his endeared ones to mutual cursing. By God, if the position of Caesar of Rome who follows us was not involved, we would certainly embrace Islam. But this great obstacle on our way, there is no option other than compromise or accepting what he wants.

Now, try to get out of this dangerous situation and save your future with cleverness. O Christian people, I can see illuminated faces to whom everyone resorts for the removing of mountains, God will remove that mountain from one place to another. If you are ready for mutual cursing with them, you will certainly perish and there will be no Christian on the earth till the Day of Judgment!

Hearing the words of their chief priest, the delegation of Najran Christians came to the conclusion that they should end the matter peacefully. Hence, they said: O Abu-al-Qasim! We have decided not to have mutual cursing with you. So you shall have your religion and we shall have our religion. The Messenger of Allah said: You have to embrace Islam so that you will share profit and loss with Muslims. They disagreed. The Holy Prophet (s.a) said: Therefore, be prepared for fighting. They said: We are not able to fight Arabs. Nevertheless, we will compromise with you in a way that you will not attack us, nor will you stop us from practicing our religion. In return, we will promise to pay two thousand garments, each garment being equal to forty Dirhams, each year and if it is less than it a year, we will make it up the following year, that is, one thousand garments in the month of Safar and one thousand in the month of Rajab. In addition to this, we will offer you thirty armors each year. The Messenger of Allah accepted their request, saying: By God in whose Hand my life is, if the Christians of Najran embarked on mutual cursing, they would certainly perish; they would be transformed into pigs and monkeys; a blazing fire would engulf them so much so that it would burn the birds on branches and in the sky; all the Christians of Najran would perish and all the Christians on the earth would be annihilated.

 The reason the aforementioned verse was recited is that God Almighty has considered Muhammad’s life as `Ali’s life and `Ali’s life as Muhammad’s life.

Love for `Ali, A Must

God Almighty states: “say: I do not ask of you any reward for it but love for my near relatives” (42:24). Beyond doubt, Imam `Ali (a.s) is the master of the Household of the Holy Prophet (s.a) and a near relative.

Ahmad ibn Hanbal in a narration recounts that the Messenger of Allah having the hands of Hasan and Husayn in his hand said: Whoever has the love for me, for my two sons, and for their parents in heart, will be near me in paradise on the Day of Judgment.

Ahmad ibn Hanbal has quoted Zarr ibn Habish as saying: `Ali said: By God, the Messenger of Allah informed me of the divine covenant to the effect that hypocrisy is the sign of enmity with you and faith is the sign of love for you. Hence no one is my enemy unless he is hypocrite, and no one loves me unless he is a believer.

Ahmad ibn Hanbal has reported `Abd al-Rahman ibn Abi-Layla as saying: On the day of Khaybar, the Messenger of Allah said: I will give the banner of Islam to a man who loves Allah and His messenger, and Allah and His messenger too love him. He is a champion who has never turned his back on war and kills the ill-fated enemies of Islam with his sword. The Holy Prophet’s companions, who were longing for this honor, looked at the face of the Messenger of Allah but soon they became desperate, for this honor was given to `Ali.

The Holy Prophet (s.a) has been quoted by Hudhayfah as saying: Whoever wishes to resort to a ruby God created and said “be” and it “was”, has to accept the imamate of `Ali ibn Abi-Talib after me and to obey him.

`Abdullah ibn Mas`ud has been reported as saying: the Messenger of Allah had come to the house of Ummu-Salamah from the house of Zaynab bint Jahsh when someone knocked the door. The Messenger of Allah said: Ummu-Salamah, go and open the door. Ummu-Salamah said: O Messenger of Allah! Who is at the door and how high is his position that I should welcome him without Hijab (veil) given that verses were revealed about me yesterday? The Messenger of Allah said: Obey my order, for to obey me is to obey Allah and to disobey me is to disobey Allah. The man who is asking for permission to come in, is not a man of feeble will or reckless. He will not enter the house unless he knows no woman is on his way. He loves Allah and His messenger and Allah and His messenger too love him.

 Ummu-Salamah says: I opened the door but he held the door post and stopped where he was. I went inside the room and behind curtain. Being sure there was no one on his way, he came to the presence of the Holy Prophet and greeted him. The Messenger of Allah said: O Ummu-Salamah, did you know him. I said: Yes, he is `Ali ibn Abi-Talib. Then, he said: His temperament is my temperament, his flesh, his blood, and all the dimensions of his existence come from my existence. He is the one who will act to what I have promised. Listen to this and be a witness of it. O Ummu-Salamah, he is the treasure of my knowledge and the leader of the believers after me. Then, he said: Listen to me and be a witness. He will fight the deviators, Mu`awiyah and his followers, and Khawarij after me. By God, he will enliven my tradition. Again listen to me and be a witness. Then, the Messenger of Allah said: If a servant worships Allah between Rukn and Maqam for thousands of thousands years, and then passes away while being an enemy of `Ali, God will throw him into hell on face and he will be in the abyss of hell forever.

The Messenger of Allah has been quoted by Mu`adh as saying: Love for `Ali ibn Abi-Talib is a good deed with which a sin is forgivable and enmity with him is a sin unforgivable.

Ibn Mas`ud has been quoted as saying: Love for Ahl al-Bayt for one day is better than a year of worship and one who passes away with this one-day-love will certainly enter paradise.


The Messenger of Allah has been quoted by Abu-Dharr as saying: `Ali is the gate of my knowledge and guidance which is opened to its devotees. He will express to my Ummah what I have been commissioned to convey. Love for him is faith, enmity with him is hypocrisy and friendship with him is worship.

The Holy Prophet (s.a) has been quoted by Jabir as saying: Gabriel came down to me while he was holding a green tablet in hand with an inscription in white reading: I have made the love for `Ali ibn Abi-Talib incumbent upon all creatures. Therefore, o prophet, convey it to the whole people.

The Messenger of Allah has been quoted by Ibn `Abbas as saying: God would have never created Hell if all people had had love for `Ali.

The Holy Prophet (s.a) has been reported as saying: O `Ali, if a servant worship God like Noah, gives away gold as heavy as Mount Uhud, lives so long as to go on Hajj pilgrimage on foot a thousand times, and is killed innocent between Mount Safa and Mount Marwah but does not accept your imamate and leadership, he will not deserve to go to paradise.

A man said to Salman: Your extreme friendship with `Ali is amazing! Salman said: I heard the Messenger of Allah saying: Whoever loves `Ali loves me and whoever is hostile to `Ali is hostile to me too.

The Messenger of Allah has been quoted by `Abdullah ibn `Umar as saying: Whoever loves `Ali God Almighty will accept his prayer, fast and good deeds and will answer his prayer. Whoever loves `Ali he will be given cities in paradise as many as the number of his veins. Whoever has love for the family of Muhammad will be safe from hard reckoning, the Balance and the Discriminating Bridge on the Day of Judgment. Whoever passes away with the love for the family of Muhammad will join prophets in paradise with my intercession. Then he said: Let it be known to you that whoever is the enemy of the family of prophet, there will be an inscription between his eyes reading: This person is deprived of God’s mercy.


The Holy Prophet (s.a) has been reported by `Abdullah ibn Mas`ud as saying: Whoever believes in me and what has been revealed to me but is the enemy of `Ali, he is lying and has no faith.

The Messenger of Allah has been quoted by Abi- Barza as saying: By God in whose Hand my life is, no one can move on the Day of Judgment unless he is asked about four things: How his life was spent, what his body was worn out for, where his wealth was gained from, and what his wealth was spent on as well as the love for Ahl al-Bayt. At this time `Umar rose up saying: What is the sign of your love? Putting his hand on `Ali’s head, the Holy Prophet said: Love for this great man after my passing away, for to obey him is to obey me and to oppose him is to oppose me.

`Abdullah ibn `Umar has reported: The Messenger of Allah was asked: In what tone did the Almighty God speak to you on the night of ascension (Mi`raj)? The Holy Prophet said: He addressed me in the tone of `Ali! At that time, I was inspired to ask: O Lord, are you speaking to me or it is `Ali who is speaking to me? God said: O Ahmad! My truth is different from that of other things! I can neither be compared with people nor am I described with similar things! I created you from my light and `Ali from your light. Thereafter, I became aware of the secret of your heart, finding out there was no one closer and more beloved to your heart than `Ali. Hence, I addressed you in the tone of `Ali so that your heart will be put at rest in this assembly of friendship.

The Messenger of Allah has been reported by Abi- Baraza and Hafiz Abu-`Abdullah Shafi`i as saying: God Almighty took a solemn pledge from me about the position of `Ali in fulfilling my mission. I said: O Lord, what is that important mission? God said: Listen! I said: I am prepared. God said: `Ali is the standard-bearer of guidance, the leader of the saints and the light of the devoted ones. He is the word rendered necessary for the pious. Whoever loves `Ali loves me and whoever is his enemy is my enemy! O prophet! Give these good tidings to him. At this time `Ali came to me and I conveyed this good news to him. `Ali said: O Messenger of Allah! I am the servant of Allah and under His power. If God punishes me, it is but for sin and disobedience, and if He has given the good news about me, He has honored me with His Grace. At this time, I raised my hand in prayer, saying: O Lord! Illuminate his heart with belief. God Almighty answered my prayer about him, saying: I will fulfill what you have wished for him. Then God informed me about the trials which will not befall my companions except him. Then I said: O Lord! Is he my brother and helper? God said: This position had been foreseen before you knew about it, for he has been a subject of my test and I will test people with his position.

The Messenger of Allah has been quoted by `Ammar ibn Yasir as saying: I advise to believe in the imamate of `Ali ibn Abi-Talib one who believes in me and accepts my prophethood, for whoever accepts his imamate, has accepted my imamate and prophethood. Whoever believes in my Wilayah will enter the Wilayah of Allah, and Allah is pleased with him.

Abu-`Alqamah has reported: The Messenger of Allah performed his morning prayer in the gathering of his companions and turning to them, said: O companions! Last night, I dreamt of my uncle, Hamzah, and my brother, Ja`far, with a big tray of fruits before them. They were eating the fruits which were from the tree “Sadr.” Then the fruits turned into grapes and after some moments into dates. I went near them, saying: May my father be ransom for you. Which good deed did you find better? They said: May our parents be ransom for you. Among good deeds we did not find but three deeds, namely, sending greeting upon you, quenching a thirsty person and keeping the love of `Ali ibn Abi-Talib in our hearts.

The Messenger of Allah has been reported as saying: God Almighty takes pride in my followers as compared to followers of other prophets, forgives you all and has a special favor towards `Ali. Surely, I am the Messenger of Allah to you all. I neither intimidate people about my tribe nor support them unduly. What I say comes from my Lord who has given me this mission and I have to convey it. Gabriel, the Messenger of Allah says to me: Happy is one who loves `Ali both during his life and after his passing away. Ill-fated is one who is the enemy of `Ali both during his life and after his passing away, and has his rancor in his heart.

`Abdullah Ibn `Abbas who had lost his sight, accompanied by Sa`id ibn Jubayr, passed by the well of Zamzam where a group of people from Syria were cursing `Ali. Hearing this, `Abdullah said: Take me back to those people. Being among them, `Abdullah said: Which one of you curses God? They said: God forbid. None of us curses God! Then, he asked: Which one of you curses the Messenger of Allah? They said: God forbid! We never curse our prophet. Then, he asked: Which one of you curses `Ali? They said: Yes, we curse `Ali! Ibn `Abbas said: I bear witness that I heard the Messenger of Allah saying to `Ali: O `Ali! Whoever curses you, has cursed me and whoever curses me, has cursed Allah! Whoever curses Allah, He will throw him into hell on face! Sa`id reports: Ibn `Abbas said this to them, turned his back from them and left the place.

The Messenger of Allah has been reported by Anas as saying: On the night journey, I saw an angel sitting on a pulpit of light with other angels gathering round him. I said to Gabriel: Who is this angel? Gabriel said:

See him from close and greet him. I went close and greeted him. I found out that he was my brother and cousin, `Ali ibn Abi-Talib. I asked amazingly: Has `Ali come to the fourth heaven before me? Gabriel said: No, but since angels were fond of seeing `Ali, God created an angel of light in the form of `Ali. While glorifying Allah, angels go to visit him seventy thousand times every Friday night and day and the reward is offered to those who love `Ali ibn Abi-Talib.
`Ali, the Holy Qur’an, and the truth are Inseparable

 The Messenger of Allah has been reported by Abi-Layla as saying: Soon after my passing away, mischief and sedition will occur among you people from every direction! At that time, do not leave `Ali alone if you look for salvation, for he will distinguish between what is just and what is unjust. He will remove the dust of injustice from justice.

 The Holy Prophet (s.a) has been quoted by Ibn `Umar as saying: One who is deviated from the path of `Ali, is deviated from my path. Such a person is deprived of guidance and the leadership of God Almighty.

Abu-Ayyub Ansari reports: I heard the Messenger of Allah saying to `Ammar ibn Yasir: The rebellious group will kill you while you are with the truth and truth is with you! O `Ammar! Should you see `Ali has chosen a path but all people have chosen another path, leave the people to themselves and opt for the path of `Ali, for `Ali’s path is not worrisome. He will not mislead you nor will he obstruct the path of truth to you.

O `Ammar! If a person carries a sword on his shoulder to help `Ali and strikes it on the head of enemy, God Almighty will honor him with a sword of pearl as a sign of pleasure and if a person carries a sword on his shoulder to help `Ali’s enemies or fights him, God Almighty will hang a sword of fire on his shoulders as a sign of wrath.

 The Messenger of Allah has been quoted by `A’ishah as saying: Truth always accompanies `Ali and keeps pace with `Ali whatever path he walks on.

 Ummu-Salamah reports: I heard from the Messenger of Allah saying: Truth is with `Ali and `Ali is with truth. These two are not separable till the Day of Judgment when they come to me at the Pond.

The Holy Prophet (s.a) has been reported by `A’ishah as saying: Truth is with `Ali and `Ali is with truth. These two are inseparable. There is no separation between them till they come to me at the Pond.

Ummah Salamah reports: I heard from the Messenger of Allah saying: `Ali and his followers will come to me at the Pond while truth is with them and they are inseparable.

Abi- Rafi` reports: the Messenger of Allah said to me: O Abu-Rafi`! What will be your position if you see a group of injustice are fighting `Ali given that he is right and they are not right? Should a person desire God’s pleasure, he must fight the enemies of `Ali, for fighting `Ali’s enemies is God’s order and His pleasure. Therefore, whoever is able to fight must do so and attend the battlefield immediately. If he is not physically able to do so, he must rise up against `Ali’s enemies verbally to undermine their success and to disgrace them. Even if he is not able to do so, he must fight them with his heart. This is the last stage of Jihad in the path of truth against his enemies. 

Abu-Rafi` reports: After hearing this advice, I said: O Messenger of Allah! Pray to God for me that if I live till then, I will have the honor of fighting them. Eventually when people pledged their allegiance with Imam `Ali, Mu`awiyah challenged him, and Talhah and Zubayr went to Basrah, I said to myself: They are the same people about whom the Holy Prophet spoke.

Abu-Rafi` decided to fight them. Hence, he sold the land he had in Khaybar and his house in Medina to spend on fighting the enemies of `Ali. When `Ali left Medina for Basrah to put an end to the battle of Jamal (camel), Abu-Rafi` and his family accompanied `Ali to Basrah. He was in Kufah until the martyrdom of Amir al-Mu’minin. Thereafter, he returned to Medina with Imam Hasan and since he had neither land nor house in that city, Imam Hasan gave him a piece of land in Yanba from `Ali’s endowment for farming as well as a house.

In the battle of Jamal when Zayd ibn Sawhan was wounded, `Ali went to see him in the last moments of his life, saying: O Zayd! May God bless you. By God, as far as I know you, you are an altruist, that is, you ignore yourself but help others. Zayd raised his head, saying: O my master! May God bless you, too. By God, I have a feeling that you know God truthfully and are fully aware of the divine verses and decrees. I swear by God that I did not rise up against your enemies out of ignorance and bewilderment. The reason I am fighting along with you is the words I heard from Hudhayfah ibn Yaman who reported the Messenger of Allah as saying: `Ali is the leader of the benefactors and the killer of wrongdoers. God will help those who help him and abase those who abase him. Beyond doubt, truth is always with `Ali. O you who follow truth! Never leave him alone. Follow him in words and actions.

 Ummu-Salamah also reports: I heard the Messenger of Allah saying: `Ali is with the Qur’an and the Qur’an is with `Ali. These two are inseparable till they come to me at the Pond.
Whoever I Am the Master, `Ali Is His Master

 The Messenger of Allah sent `Ali to Yemen to collect compromise money including cash, expensive cloth, one fifth levy, and alms from the Christians of Najran and he himself left Medina for Mecca to perform Hajj while Muslims too had announced their readiness for performing Hajj rituals from every part with a notice in advance. The departure time of the Holy Prophet was 25th of Dhu'l-Qa`dah. Concurrently, the Holy Prophet (s.a) wrote a letter to `Ali to leave Yemen for Mecca but he had not specified the kind of Hajj. The Holy Prophet put on the clothed of Ihram (i.e. putting on the uniform of Hajj) for Qiran (a form of the ritual Hajj) and the companions too put on their clothes of Ihram in the same place. To meet the Holy Prophet, `Ali too left Yemen for Mecca and went to the presence of the Messenger of Allah before the arrival of his army men. Rejoicing at seeing, the Holy Prophet said: With what intention did you put on the clothes of Ihram? `Ali said: O Messenger of Allah, you had not specified the type of Hajj in the letter but my intention is the same as yours. While putting on my clothes of Ihram, I said: O Lord, I put on the clothes of Ihram the same as the Holy Prophet has done. I have brought thirty four camels with me. Being happy and saying: Allah is the Greatest, the Holy Prophet said: I have brought sixty six camels with me too. Therefore you will share the Hajj rituals and sacrifice with me. Some of the companions of the Holy Prophet had not brought animals for sacrifice with them. Hence, the verse “Complete your Hajj and Umrah for Allah” was revealed to determine their duties.


To explain this verse, the Holy Prophet put the fingers of his two hands together and showing them to people said: I merged this type of Umrah with the Hajj and this merger continues till the Day of Judgment. Then he said: I would not bring the animals for sacrifice with me if I had to perform what I have been commissioned to do. Then he ordered a herald to declare that those who have not brought animals for sacrifice with them get out of the state of Ihram and consider their Hajj as Tamattu`, but those who have brought animals for sacrifice with them remain in the state of Ihram. With this order, some people obeyed the Holy Prophet’s instruction and some others disagreed, saying: It is not fair that the Holy Prophet is in the state of Ihram while we can put on our new clothes, have intercourse with our wives and wear perfume. Knowing this, the Holy Prophet said: I would have got out of the state of Ihram, if I had not brought animals of sacrifice with me! At this time, some of the people regretted what they had said and obeyed the Holy Prophet’s order. Yet, a group of them headed by `Umar ibn Khattab kept on opposing it. Being informed of their second Ihram, the Holy Prophet sent for `Umar, saying to him: Why do you remain in the state of Ihram? Have you brought an animal for sacrifice? He said: No. the Holy Prophet said: Why are you opposing me then? He said: By God, I will not come out of the state of Ihram as long as you are in it. The Holy Prophet said: You will never believe in this order and keep on opposing it till the end of your life. `Umar persisted in this so much so that during his caliphate, he would sit in his pulpit, announcing his opposition to this order of the Holy Prophet and would threaten people in giving it up.

After completing Hajj rituals, the Messenger of Allah accompanied by Muslims left Mecca for Medina till they reached a place called Ghadir Khum. At this time, the verse, “O Messenger of Allah! Deliver what has been revealed to you from your Lord; and if you do it not, then you have not delivered His message, and Allah will protect you from the people (5:67),” was revealed to the Holy Prophet (s.a).

God knew that if the Holy Prophet passed by Ghadir Khum and did not stop there, people would be dispersed and everyone would go to his own city. Although it was very hot, the Holy Prophet ordered people to stop, to take a rest under the trees and to make a pulpit with camels’ saddles. He then ordered people to get ready for congregational prayer. When the people gathered, the Holy Prophet went up the pulpit, called `Ali to come and stand near him, praised the Lord and informed the people about the news of his departure from this world, saying: I have been called by my Lord. Soon I will pass away and you will miss me. I am leaving among you two valuable things: the book of Allah and my Household. If you adhere to them, you will never go astray. They will never separate from one another until they come to me at the Pond.

Then with a loud voice said: Am I not superior to you? They all said: Yes, you are our guardian and you rule on all aspects of our life! At this time, the Holy Prophet (s.a) raised the two arms of `Ali in a way his armpit became manifest, saying: Whomever I am the master, `Ali is his master too! Then, raising his hands in prayer, he said: O Lord, support one who supports `Ali and be the enemy of one who is his enemy. Help one who helps `Ali and abase one who refuses to help him.

 After delivering the sermon and conveying the message, the Holy Prophet came down from the pulpit, performed two Rak`ah of prayer and since it was the time of noon prayer, he performed the noon prayer with Muslims. He then sat in his camp and ordered to set up a camp for `Ali to sit in it. Then, he called on all companions to come to `Ali to congratulate and salute him for his position as the successor of the Messenger of Allah. Amid this, one rejoicing more than others was `Umar ibn Khattab who said: May this position be blessed to you now that you are my master and the master of all believing men and women!

 Buraydah has been quoted as saying: The Messenger of Allah sent a group of the companions headed by `Ali on a military expedition and I was among them too. After returning, the Holy Prophet asked us about the behavior of `Ali. Among the gathering, the only one who complained of `Ali was me. When I raised my head to look at the Holy Prophet’s face, I could see the sign of anger in his face! At this time the Holy Prophet said: Whomever I am the master, `Ali is his master too.

`Imran ibn Hussayn has been reported as saying: the Messenger of Allah sent an army on a military expedition under the command of `Ali. Following victory, `Ali chose a female slave for himself. This act
was heavy for us, so we disputed with him. We, four companions vowed to report this act of `Ali to the Messenger of Allah. As it was usual with Muslims to go and visit the Messenger of Allah first and then go to their houses, we too went directly to the Messenger of Allah and based on a previous agreement, one of the four said: O Messenger of Allah, `Ali did such and such in this expedition and told him the whole story. Turning back his face, the Messenger of Allah said nothing. The second one started speaking but the Messenger of Allah turned back his face again. The third and the fourth one too did the same and faced the same scene. While anger could be seen in his face, the Messenger of Allah said: What on earth do you want from `Ali? He repeated it three times and then said: `Ali is from me and I am from `Ali. He is the leader of every believer after me.

The Holy Prophet has been reported as saying: Whomever I am the master, `Ali is his master too.


The Holy Prophet has also been quoted as saying: May Allah bless `Ali. O Lord! Render the truth always with `Ali so that wherever he is the truth is with him too.

After reporting the event of Ghadir Khum, the orator of Khawarizm adds: The Messenger of Allah raised `Ali’s arms in a way his armpit became manifest. At this time, the verse “This day have I perfected for you your religion and completed my favor on you” (5:3) was revealed to the Holy Prophet who rejoiced, said: Allah is the Greatest, and added: Religion has became perfect today, God is pleased that I have conveyed the message and blessed us with the leadership of `Ali over universe. He then raised his hands in prayer, saying: O Lord! Love those who love `Ali and be the enemy of one who is his enemy. Help one who helps him and abase one who leaves him alone.

Jabir has been quoted as saying: On the day of Ta’if, the Messenger of Allah called `Ali and spoke to him privately. As the dialog prolonged, the people who were there said: How long his private words with his cousin is! Rejecting what they said, the Messenger of Allah said: By God, I did not mean to speak to him privately. It was God Almighty who was speaking to him privately, that is to say, God told me to talk to him privately.

Traditions supporting this fact are too many to be counted.
The Holy Prophet’s Appointment of Imam `Ali for the Next Leadership 

The Imamiyyah scholars and reporters have uninterruptedly narrated the Holy Prophet’s appointment, due to a Divine command, of Imam `Ali being the next leader of Muslims after him. Scholars of other Muslim sects have also mentioned a big deal of such traditions. Seeking briefness, I will hereinafter refer to some of these reports and traditions.

The Holy Prophet (s.a) has been reported by Jabir as saying: When God Almighty created the heavens and the earth, He called them and they too responded to His call. Then he offered to them my prophethood and `Ali’s Wilayah (leadership) and they accepted it. Later, he created all the beings and entrusted religion to us. So happy is one who will follow us and wretched is one who disobeys us. Then he said: It is we who consider what is permitted by God as Halal (lawful) and what is not permitted by God as Haram (unlawful).

Abu-Sa`id Khidri has quoted Salman as saying: I said to the Messenger of Allah: There is a successor for every prophet, who is your successor? The Messenger of Allah kept silent and did not say anything. After some time, he called me and said: O Salman! I rushed to him saying: yes, O Messenger of Allah. He said: Do you know who was the successor of Moses? I said: Yes, he was Yusha` ibn Nun. He said: Why? I said because he was the most knowledgeable of his time. He said: For this reason, my executer, my confidential and the best person who will fulfill my pledges is `Ali ibn Abi-Talib.

The Messenger of Allah has been quoted by Anas ibn Malik as saying in the book Al-Arba`in: I and `Ali are two proofs of Allah for His servants.

When the verse “And warn your nearest relations” (26:214) was revealed, the Messenger of Allah invited his nearest relations, the children of `Abd al-Muttalib, amounting to forty, to Abu-Talib’s house, ordered to prepare food for them from leg of mutton, one mudd of wheat and a bowl of milk. Although each of them used to eat one mutton at a meal, and drink a goatskin of water, they all ate and drank of what the Messenger of Allah had prepared yet nothing dwindled. With this, the Messenger of Allah showed them his superiority and revealed the first sign of his prophethood.

When they stopped eating, the Messenger of Allah turned to those present and said: O sons of `Abd al-Muttalib! God Almighty has appointed me as prophet to all people especially to you by saying “warn your nearest relations.” I now invite you to two words which are easy to say but heavy to act. With these words, you will rule over Arabs and non-Arabs, you will make various nations on the earth to follow you to make them enjoy God’s blessing of entering the paradise and being saved from hell. Those words are testifying the oneness of God and my prophethood. Whoever, accepts this call and supports me will be my brother, executer, heir and vizier. From among the gathering, even a single person did not respond him positively! Amir al-Mu’minin says: I was present in that gathering. Though I was the youngest, I rose up and responded positively to his call, saying: O Messenger of Allah! I will help you in this great task. The Messenger of Allah said: O `Ali, calm down and take your seat. The Messenger of Allah repeated his call but there was silence again. This time too, I rose up and repeated my words. The Messenger of Allah gave me the same answer. For the third time, the Messenger of Allah repeated his call and faced silence. Again I rose up and gave my positive response. The Messenger of Allah ordered me to sit down with kindness, saying: `Ali, you are my executer, heir, and caliph after me. Those who were present rose up to leave and mockingly turned to Abu-Talib and said: May following your nephew and accepting his religion which has made your son your leader be blessed to you!

The Messenger of Allah has been reported by Abi- Buraydah as saying: Every prophet has an heir and executer. `Ali too is my heir and executor.

Anas reports: The Messenger of Allah said: O Anas! The first person who comes to you is Amir al-Mu’minin, the master of Muslims, the leader of the benefactors and the last executor! Anas reports: By hearing this word, I raised my hands in prayer, saying: O Lord! Choose this man from Ansar and kept it in my heart while looking at the door. All of a sudden, `Ali entered. The Holy Prophet said: O Anas! Who is this person? I said: It is `Ali ibn Abi-Talib. Rejoicingly, the Messenger of Allah rose up and hugged him. He then mixed the sweat of his own face with that of `Ali and rubbed it on his face! `Ali said: O Messenger of Allah! Today you did to me what you had not done before! The Holy Prophet said: Why should I not do it when you carry out my pledges, you have my voice heard by people, solve their problem and settle their differences?

Abu-Na`im reports: One day the Messenger of Allah said to `Ali: Hail to you, the master of Muslims and the leader of the pious.

The Messenger of Allah has been reported by Salman as saying: Verily, `Ali ibn Abi-Talib is my brother, vizier, helper, and the best successor I leave behind me.

Abi- Ayyub Ansari reports: When the Messenger of Allah fell sick, Lady Fatimah came to visit her father. She sat near his bed and seeing her father feeble started weeping so much that the Messenger of Allah tried to appease her by saying: O my daughter! One of the blessings of Allah to you is that I married you to one who is the most knowledgeable and the most forbearing. Verily God Almighty with His infinite knowledge did a favor to the people on the earth by appointing me as a prophet and did another favor by choosing your husband. He revealed to me to marry you to `Ali and choose him as my executor.

Daraqutni, the author of the book, al-Jarh wal-Ta`dil too has related the above narration.

Daraqutni, on the authority of his own series of narrators, has quoted Abu-Harun `Abdi as saying: I met Abu-Sa`id Khidri asking him: Did you take part in the battle of Badr? He said: Yes, I did. I said: will you not tell me something about what you heard from the Holy Prophet about `Ali’s merits and virtues? He said: I will inform you of it. When the Messenger of Allah was improving from illness and Lady Fatimah had come to visit him, I was sitting on the right side o f the Messenger of Allah. Seeing her father feeble, Lady Fatimah started weeping! The Holy Prophet who was deeply impressed asked Fatimah about her weeping. Lady Fatimah said: Dear father, I am afraid of living when I am not near you. The sworn enemies of Islam may reveal their long-lasting cherished rancor! To appease his daughter, the Prophet of Allah said: Do you not know that God Almighty with His infinite knowledge did a favor to those living on the earth by appointing your father as a prophet and once again did a favor to them by choosing your husband and revealed to me to marry you to him and then I appointed him as my executer? O my daughter! Do you not know that your position with God is so great that I married you to the most knowledgeable, the most forbearing and the foremost in Islam? Hearing this, Lady Fatimah became happy, smiled and received her reward from her father.

At this time, in order to inform Lady Fatimah of the abundant blessing God had given to Muhammad and His household, the Messenger of Allah said: O Fatimah! `Ali has eight merits which are unique in universe, namely, his belief in Allah and His messenger, his abundant knowledge, a wife like you, sons like Hasan and Husayn, enjoying the good and forbidding the evil. O Fatimah! We are Ahl al-Bayt endowed with six qualities which were not given to anyone in the former generations nor will be given to future generations but to us. Our prophet is the best and he is your father. We have the best executer and he is your husband. Our martyr is the best and he is the uncle of your father. Ja`far Tayyar who flies with two wings in paradise belongs to us. Two best sons of this Ummah are your sons. Mahdi behind whom Jesus will perform prayer is from us too.

 Then, the Messenger of Allah put his hand on Husayn’s shoulder and said: Mahdi of this Ummah will come from this son of mine.

 The Holy Prophet has been quoted by Anas as saying: Verily, my friend, my vizier, my helper, my successor and the best man who will survive me and carries out my orders is `Ali ibn Abi-Talib.

 The Messenger of Allah has been reported as saying: Gabriel came to me with his wings wide open. On one wing there was the inscription: There is no God but Allah and Muhammad is His messenger, and the other: There is no God but Allah and `Ali is the successor of His messenger.

`Ali; Amir al-Mu’minin 
Ibn `Abbas has been quoted as saying: When the Messenger of Allah had put his head on the lap of Dihyah ibn Khalifah Kalbi in the courtyard of his house, `Ali entered, greeted him and said: In what state is the Messenger of Allah? He said: He is now in good condition. 

Imam `Ali answered, “May God reward you with a worthy rewarding on behalf of us, the people of the Prophet’s House.” At this time, addressing `Ali, Dihyah Kalbi said: O `Ali! I like you and I have brought you a praiseworthy salutation from God which I present to you. You are the commander of the believers, the leader of graceful people and benefactors. You are the master of the sons of Adam except the prophets! On the Day of Judgment, the banner of al-Hamd is in your hand. You and your followers along with Muhammad and his followers will enter paradise with no delay. Salvation is for one who accepts your leadership and the loser is one who disobeys you. The friends of Muhammad are your friends and his enemies are your enemies who will never enjoy Muhammad’s intercession. Then, he said: O you are chosen by God! Come close to me and put your cousin’s head on your lap. After moment’s the Messenger of Allah took his head off `Ali’s lap and said: Whose voice was that? `Ali told him the whole story. The Messenger of Allah said: The one speaking to you was not Dihyah Kalbi! He was Gabriel who called you with the name God has chosen for you! It is Gabriel who has placed your love in the hearts of the believers and your awe in the hearts of the unbelievers.

Ibn Mardawayh on the authority of Buraydah reports: The Messenger of Allah ordered us to address `Ali as the commander of the believers and say: Peace be to you, O Amir al-Mu’minin.

Ibn Mardawayh on the authority of `Abdullah reports: Once `Ali went to the Messenger of Allah while `A’ishah was with him. He took a seat between the Holy Prophet and `A’ishah who protested by saying: Did you not find any other place than my seat? Hearing this, the Messenger of Allah who had become angry tapped her on the back and said: `A’ishah! Calm down and stop bothering me with your snide remark against my brother, `Ali, for he is Amir al-Mu’minin, the master of Muslims, the leader of the graceful people. On the Day of Judgment he will sit on the Discriminating Bridge, will guide his followers to paradise and his enemies to hell.

Ibn Mardawayh on the authority of Rafi`, the manumitted slave of `A’ishah reports: When I was a young boy, I used to do the chores outside the house for `A’ishah and when the Messenger of Allah was at home, in addition to outside chores, I would do chores inside the house too. One day when the Messenger of Allah was at home, someone knocked at the door. I went quickly to the door and found there was a female slave with a big tray with a cover on it. She asked permission to enter. I went and informed `A’ishah. She said: Guide her into the house. Entering the house, the female slave put the tray on the ground before `A’ishah, saying: This is a gift offered to you. She took it to the Messenger of Allah and removed the cover from it. The female slave left and the Messenger of Allah started eating from the tray, saying: I wish Amir al-Mu’minin, the master of Muslims and the leader of the pious, were here to share the food with us. At this time, someone knocked at the door. When I opened the door, I found `Ali behind it. Rushing towards the Messenger of Allah, I said: `Ali is behind the door, asking permission to enter. The Holy Prophet’s eyes fell on `Ali’s face and said: You are most welcome! Hail to you. I longed for your presence twice. If you were late, I would pray to God to bring you here. Now, take a seat and eat with us.

The Messenger of Allah has been quoted by Anas as saying: Paradise longs for four men of my Ummah! I intended to ask him who they were but I feared they might not be those in my mind. Hence, I went to Abu-Bakr, told him of the story, and said: Ask the Messenger of Allah who they are. Abu-Bakr said: I fear that I might not be among the four and to be exposed to the blame of my tribe (Bani Taym). So I went to `Umar and asked him to do the same. `Umar too brought up the possible blame of his tribe (Banu-`Adi). Thereafter, I went to `Uthman and told him the story. Like the other two, he said: I fear I may not be among the four and be blamed by Umayyad. Being desperate, I went to `Ali who was irrigating his tree and told him the story.

`Ali said: By God, I will ask the Messenger of Allah and I am not fearful, for if I am one of the four, I will praise Lord for giving me such a blessing and if I am not one of them, I will pray to Lord to make me one of the four and place their love in my heart.

So he headed for the Holy Prophet’s house while I was accompanying him. We saw the Messenger of Allah at a time Dihyah Kalbi had his head on his lap. Seeing `Ali, Dihyah rose up, hailed him and said: O Amir al-Mu’minin! Come and put the head of your cousin on your lap, for you are more deserving of this act! `Ali sat on the ground and put the head of the Messenger of Allah on his lap. At this time, the Holy Prophet woke up, saying: O Abul Hasan! You are not here without reason. What do you need? `Ali said: O Messenger of Allah, may my parents be ransom for you. When I came here, your head was on Kalbi’s lap. He rose up, greeted me and said: Put the head of your cousin on your lap, for you are more deserving than me! The Messenger of Allah asked: Did you recognize him? I said: Yes, he was Dihyah Kalbi. The Messenger of Allah said: He was not Dihyah rather, he was Gabriel the trustworthy in the guise of Dihyah. Then `Ali said: May my parents be your ransom. Right now, Anas informed me that you have said: Paradise longs for four persons! Who are those four? Pointing his finger at `Ali, the Messenger of Allah said: By God, you are the first of them. He repeated this three times. `Ali said: O Messenger of Allah! May my parents be your ransom; who are the other three? The Holy Prophet said: The other three are: Miqdad, Salman, and Abu-Dharr.
The Messenger of Allah has said on the authority of `Abbas: On the Day of Judgment, no one will enter the plain of the Resurrection Yard riding except four persons. Rising up from his seat, `Abbas said: O Messenger of Allah! May my parents be your ransom; who are those four persons? The Holy Prophet said: I will ride my heavenly horse (Buraq), my brother Salih will ride his she-camel which was hamstrung, my uncle Hamzah will ride my `Adba’ she-camel and my brother, my cousin and my son-in-law, `Ali, will ride one of the she-camels of paradise with fine silk on it, with emerald legs, red gold body, white camphor head, ambergris tail, glowing with light, musky skeleton, neck of pearls, cupola of divine light whose inward is divine forgiveness and its outward is divine mercy. The banner of al-Hamd is in his hand. When he passes by a group of angels, they will say: Is he an arch-angel, a prophet or bearer of divine throne? At that time a herald from near or inside the divine throne will say: He is neither arch-angel, nor a prophet or bearer of divine throne. He is `Ali ibn Abi-Talib, Amir al-Mu’minin, the leader of the pious and the head of the graceful ones. Delivered is one who accepts him and loser is one who denies or disobeys him. If a worshipper prays for thousands of years between Rukn and Maqam of Ka`bah in a way his body languishes and meets God while he is the enemy of the family of Muhammad, God will throw him to hell on face.

The Messenger of Allah has been reported as saying: when on my Night Journey, I reached the farthest lote-tree (Sidrat al-Muntaha), I stopped in the presence of Allah who said: O Muhammad! I said: Yes. He said: You have tried my servants. Which of them obeys you? I said: O Lord! I found `Ali the most obedient. He said: You said the truth. Have you appointed a successor among your Ummah to guide my servants with my book and to teach them what they do not know? I said: O Lord! You appoint my successor, for you are the Best Appointer! God said: I have appointed `Ali. Therefore, appoint him as your vicegerent and executor after yourself, for I have given him my knowledge and forbearance. He is truly the commander of the believers. This is a title I have allocated to him only, for no one has had it before or will have it in future. O Muhammad! `Ali is the standard bearer of guidance, leader of my obedient servants and the light of my The saints. He is the word I made incumbent on the pious. Whoever loves him, has loved me and whoever is hostile to him, has been hostile to me! O Muhammad! Convey this good news to him. The Messenger of Allah said: I conveyed to him this good news. He appreciated it and said: I am a servant of God and under His control. If He blames me, it is because of the sin I have committed and if He forgives me it is because God is my Lord and my Aide. God said: Verily I will fulfill the promise I have given him. I said: O Lord! Make belief in You steadfast in him. God said: I did, but O Muhammad! I will try him with tribulations and calamities with which I have not tried anyone of the saints. I said: He is my brother and my long-cherished friend. God said: This is the fate I know about him. He will be afflicted with all these calamities and it is due to his high positions. My party, my devotees and the followers of prophets would not be recognized if there were no `Ali.
These traditions have been reported from more than three hundred ways of narration.

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